Category Archives: Realization

Mind & Happiness 42

Mind & Happiness 42

In addition to knowing its own Existence, our Consciousness sometimes seems to know other things also.  When our Consciousness thus appears to know things other than itself, we call it our “Mind”.  What exactly is this “Mind”, this Consciousness that knows otherness & Duality ?

Is it the true form of our Consciousness, or merely a false super-imposition upon our real Self-Consciousness “I exist” ?  Is it real, or is it merely a false appearance ?  Whenever our Mind rises, it rises in conjunction with a Body, with which it identifies itself, feeling “I am this Body”.

Without identifying itself with a Body, our Mind cannot rise.  Once it has risen, identifying itself with a particular Body, through the 5 Senses of that Body it perceives the World.  Thus our Mind’s Identification with a Body is fundamental to its ability to know the World.

But how does this Identification with a Body arise ?  Our Mind is a form of Consciousness, whereas this Body is a physical form composed of unconscious Matter.  By identifying itself with this Body, our Mind is confusing 2 different things as one.  It is confusing Consciousness, which is not physical Matter, with the physical form of this Body, which is not Consciousness.

Therefore our Mind is a confused & spurious form of Consciousness, a phantom which is neither our real Consciousness “I exist”, nor the physical form of this Body, but which mixes these 2 different things together, feeling “I am this Body”.  Though our Mind usurps the properties of both our Consciousness “I exist” & this physical Body, it is in fact neither of these 2 things.

Since the Body appears & disappears, & constantly undergoes change, it is not our real Consciousness “I exist”, which neither appears nor disappears, but exists & knows its own Existence at all times & in all states without ever undergoing any change.  And since our Mind is conscious,  it is not this Body, which is unconscious Matter.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants  of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/

Mind & Happiness 41

Mind & Happiness 41

All words are open to interpretation – & misinterpretation. This is particularly true of words that speak about the Spirit – the Reality that lies beyond the limitations of physical matter, & that therefore cannot be perceived by the 5 Senses, or known as an object of Consciousness.  All interpretations of such words fall into 2 distinct categories – interpretations that are strictly non-dualistic, admitting no division of the One & only Reality, & interpretations that are either completely dualistic, or that at least concede that within the One Reality there are divisions & distinctions that are real.

Ultimately the interpretation that we each choose to accept depends not upon the Truth itself – because the nature of the Truth cannot be proved objectively – but upon our own personal preferences. Most people – whether they hold religious beliefs or cherish a more materialistic outlook on Life – prefer to take a Dualistic view of Reality, because such a view assures them of the reality of their own Individuality, & of the World they perceive through their Senses, & (if they choose to believe in God) of God as a separately existing entity. Therefore the only basis for a Dualistic view of Reality is the attachment that people have to their own Individuality, to the World that they think gives them Happiness, & to their idea of a God who they believe will give them the things that will make them happy.

There is no way that a Dualistic view of Reality can be proved to be correct & valid.  All our knowledge of Duality is obtained by our Mind & exists only within our Mind.  If our Mind is real, then Duality may be real.  But the “reality” of our Mind is open to question & doubt.

If we are not overly attached to our existence as a separate Individual, we can begin to question & doubt the reality of our Mind.  If we do so, we will be led unavoidably to a Non-Dualistic view of Reality.  Of all the knowledge we know, the one Knowledge whose reality we cannot reasonably doubt is our own essential Consciousness “I exist”.  Knowledge can exist only if there is a Consciousness to know it.  Since all knowledge depends for its seeming existence upon Consciousness, this Consciousness is the one fundamental, irreducible, & indubitable truth of our experience.  Because we know, our Consciousness is undoubtedly Real.

The one essential quality of Consciousness is that it is always Self-Conscious – it always knows its own existence or Existence – & that Consciousness of its own Existence is what we experience as “I exist”.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/

Mind & Happiness 40

Mind & Happiness 40

Since true Self-Knowledge is therefore the State in which our individual Consciousness, our Mind or Ego, is known to be a false appearance that never existed except in its own imagination, Sri Ramana often described it as the state of “egolessness”, “loss of individuality”, or “destruction of the Mind.”

Another term that is commonly used, both in Buddhism & in advaita vēdānta, to describe this state of annihilation or extinction of our personal identity is nirvāa, a word that literally means “blown out” or “extinguished”. This is the same state that most religions refer to as “liberation” or “salvation”, because only in this state of true Self-Knowledge are we free or saved from the bondage of mistaking our self to be a separate individual, a Consciousness that is confined within the limits of a physical Body.

The sole Reality that exists & is known in this state of ego-less-ness, nirvāa or Salvation is our fundamental & essential Consciousness “I exist”.  Since it does not identify itself with any delimiting adjunct, our essential & pure Consciousness “I exist” is a single, undivided & unlimited whole, separate from which nothing can exist.

All the Diversity & Multiplicity that appears to exist so long as we identify our self with a physical Body, is known only by our Mind, which is merely a distorted & limited form of our original Consciousness “I exist”.  If this Consciousness “I exist” did not exist, nothing else could appear to exist.  Therefore, our fundamental Consciousness “I exist” is the Source & Origin of all Knowledge the one Basis of all that appears to exist.

Our essential Consciousness “I am” is thus the Ultimate Reality, the original Source from which everything arises, & the final Destination towards which all religions & spiritual traditions seek to lead us.  Most religions call this fundamental Reality “God” or the “Supreme Being”, or else they refer to it in a more abstract manner as the true State of Existence.  But by whatever name they may call it & whether they describe it as Existence or a State of Existence the Truth is that the Supreme & Absolute Reality is not anything other than our own Existence, the Consciousness which we experience as “I exist”.

In his True Form, his Essential Nature, God is not something or some person who exists outside us or separate from us, but is the Spirit or Consciousness that exists within us as our own Essential Nature.  God is the pure Consciousness “I exist”, the true Form of Consciousness that is not limited by identifying itself with a physical Body or any other adjunct.  But when we, who are that same pure Consciousness “I exist”, identify our self with a physical Body, feeling “I am this Body, I am a person, an Individual confined within the limits of Time & Space,” we become the Mind, a false & illusory form of Consciousness.  Because we identify our self with adjuncts in this manner, we seemingly separate our self from the adjunct-less pure Consciousness “I exist”, which is God.

By thus imagining our self to be an Individual separate from God, we violate his Unlimited Wholeness & Undivided Oneness.  The inner aim of all religions & spiritual traditions is to free us from this illusory state in which we imagine that we are separate from God, the One Unlimited & Undivided Reality.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/

Mind & Happiness 39

Mind & Happiness 39

This individual Consciousness our feeling “I am a person, a separate Individual, a Mind or soul confined within the limits of a Body” is merely an iIagination, a false & distorted form of our pure Consciousness “I exist”, but it is nevertheless the root cause of all desire & all Suffering.

Unless we give up this individual Consciousness, this false notion that we are separate from God, we can never be free of desire, nor of Suffering, which is the inevitable consequence of desire.  True Self-Surrender is therefore nothing but giving up the false notion that we are separate from God.  In order to give up this false notion, we must know who we really are.  And in order to know who we really are, we must attend to the Consciousness that we feel to be “I”.

Though the Consciousness that we now feel to be “I” is only a false Consciousness, a limited & distorted form of the real Consciousness that is God, by attending to it keenly we can know the real Consciousness that underlies it.  That is, attending keenly to this false form of Consciousness is similar to looking closely at a Snake that we imagine we see lying on the ground in the dim light of dusk.  When we look closely at the Snake, we discover that it is in fact nothing but a Rope.

Similarly, if we keenly attend to the limited & distorted individual Consciousness that we now feel to be “I”, we will discover that it is in fact nothing but the Real & Unlimited Consciousness “I exist”, which is God.  Just as the illusory appearance of the Snake dissolves & disappears as soon as we see the Rope, so the illusory feeling that we are a separate individual Consciousness confined within the limits of a Body will dissolve & disappear as soon as we experience the pure Non-Dual Consciousness, which is the Reality both of our Self & of God.

We can thus achieve complete & perfect Self-Surrender only by knowing our self to be the Real Consciousness that is devoid of all duality & separateness.  Without knowing our True Self, we cannot surrender our false self, & without surrendering our false self, we cannot know our True Self.

Self-Surrender & Self-Knowledge are thus inseparable, like the 2 sides of one sheet of paper. In fact, the terms “Self-Surrender” & “Self-Knowledge” are just 2 ways of describing one & the same state the pure Non-Dual State of Consciousness devoid of Individuality.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/

Mind & Happiness 38

Mind & Happiness 38

This individual Consciousness our feeling “I am a person, a separate Individual, a Mind or soul confined within the limits of a Body” is merely an imagination, a false & distorted form of our pure Consciousness “I exist”, but it is nevertheless the root cause of all desire & all Suffering.

Unless we give up this individual Consciousness, this false notion that we are separate from God, we can never be free of desire, nor of Suffering, which is the inevitable consequence of desire.  True Self-Surrender is therefore nothing but giving up the false notion that we are separate from God.  In order to give up this false notion, we must know who we really are.  And in order to know who we really are, we must attend to the Consciousness that we feel to be “I”.

Though the Consciousness that we now feel to be “I” is only a false Consciousness, a limited & distorted form of the real Consciousness that is God, by attending to it keenly we can know the real Consciousness that underlies it.  That is, attending keenly to this false form of Consciousness is similar to looking closely at a Snake that we imagine we see lying on the ground in the dim light of dusk.  When we look closely at the Snake, we discover that it is in fact nothing but a Rope.

Similarly, if we keenly attend to the limited & distorted individual Consciousness that we now feel to be “I”, we will discover that it is in fact nothing but the Real & Unlimited Consciousness “I exist”, which is God.  Just as the illusory appearance of the Snake dissolves & disappears as soon as we see the Rope, so the illusory feeling that we are a separate individual Consciousness confined within the limits of a Body will dissolve & disappear as soon as we experience the pure Non-Dual Consciousness, which is the Reality both of our Self & of God.

We can thus achieve complete & perfect Self-Surrender only by knowing our self to be the Real Consciousness that is devoid of all duality & separateness.  Without knowing our True Self, we cannot surrender our false self, & without surrendering our false self, we cannot know our True Self.

Self-Surrender & Self-Knowledge are thus inseparable, like the 2 sides of one sheet of paper. In fact, the terms “Self-Surrender” & “Self-Knowledge” are just 2 ways of describing one & the same state the pure Non-Dual State of Consciousness devoid of Individuality.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/

Mind & Happiness 37

Mind & Happiness 37

Besides describing the means to attain Self-Knowledge by the use of terms that mean “Self-Attention” or “Self-Abidance”, Sri Ramana also described it by terms that mean “Self-Surrender” or “Self-Denial”.  By using the latter terms, he affirmed that the ultimate aim of all forms of Dualistic Devotion devotion to a God who is conceived as other than the devotee is in fact the Non-Dual State of true Self-Knowledge.

In order to know our True Self, we must give up our identification with the false individual self that we now mistake to be “I”.  Therefore, surrendering or denying our personal self our Mind, which is our confused & distorted Consciousness “I am this Body, a person called so-&-so” is essential if we are to know our true unadulterated Consciousness “I exist”, which is our Real Self.

Our individual self, which is the limited & distorted Consciousness that we call our “Mind” or “Ego”, & that in theological terminology is called our “soul“, nourishes its seeming existence by attending to things other than itself.  When we cease attending to other things, as in sleep, our Mind or individual self subsides, but as soon as we begin to think of other things, it again rises & flourishes. Without thinking of things other than “I”, our Mind cannot stand. Therefore, when we attempt to turn our attention away from all objects & towards our fundamental Consciousness “I”, we are surrendering or denying our individual self, our Mind or Ego.  Self-Attention or Self-Abidance is thus the perfect means to attain the state of “Self-Surrender” or “Self-Denial”.

This is why in verse 31 of Vivēkacūāmai Sri Adi Sankara defines bhakti or “Devotion” as sva-svarūpa-anusandhāna or “Self-Attention”, the investigation or close inspection of our own true form or essential nature, which is our fundamental Self-Consciousness our Non-Dual Consciousness of our own Existence, “I am”. Sri Ramana expresses the same truth in verse 15 of Upadēśa Taippākka, but at the same Time explains why it is so:

“Since God exists as ātmā [our essential “spirit” or Real Self], ātmaanusandhāna [Self-Investigation, Self-Inspection, or Self-Attention] is parama-īśa-bhakti [Supreme Devotion to God].”

He also expresses a similar idea in the 13th paragraph of his brief treatise Yār? (Who am I ?):

Being completely absorbed in ātma-niṣṭha [Self-Abidance, the State of just Existence as we really are], giving not even the slightest room to the rising of any thought other than ātma-cintana [the thought of our own Real Self], is giving our self to God. […]”

People who practice Dualistic Devotion believe that the highest form of devotion to God the purest form of Love is to surrender our self wholly to Him.  In order to surrender themselves to Him, they try to deny themselves by giving up their Attachment to all that they consider as “mine” & in particular by renouncing their own individual will.  Thus the ultimate prayer of every true devotee is, “Thy Will be done not my will, but only Thine”.

However, so long as the Mind exists, it will inevitably have a will of its own.  Desire & Attachment are inherent in the Mind, the very fabric of which it is made. Therefore, so long as we feel our self to be an individual “I”, we will also have an individual will, & will feel a sense of Attachment to “mine”.  The only way we can surrender our own will & give up all our Attachments is to surrender the Mind that has an individual will & feels Attachment to the Body & other possessions.

Trying to surrender our individual will & sense of “mine” our desires & Attachments without actually surrendering our Individuality, our Ego or sense of Existence as a separate “I”, is like cutting the leaves & branches off a tree without cutting its root.  Until & unless we cut the root, the branches & leaves will continue sprouting again & again.  Similarly, until & unless we surrender our Ego, the root of all our desires & Attachments, all our efforts to give up our desires & Attachments will fail, because they will continue to sprout again & again in one subtle form or another. Therefore Self-Surrender can be complete & final only when our individual self, the limited Consciousness that we call our “Mind” or “Ego”, is surrendered wholly.

So long as we feel that we exist as an Individual who is separate from God, we have not surrendered our self wholly to him. Though we are in truth only the pure, unlimited & non-personal Consciousness “I exist”, which is the spirit or true form of God, we feel that we are separate from Him because we mistake our self to be a limited individual Consciousness that has identified itself with a particular Body.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/

Mind & Happiness 36

Mind & Happiness 36

Sri Ramana spoke & wrote mostly in Tamil [Dravidian], his mother tongue, but he was also conversant in Sanskrit [IndoEuropean], Telugu [Dravidian], Malayalam [Dravidian], & English [IndoEuropean].

Tamil is the oldest surviving member of the Dravidian family of languages, & has a rich & ancient classical literature.  Though in its origins it belongs to a family of languages that is entirely independent of the IndoEuropean family, for the past 2,000 years or so Tamil literature has made rich & abundant use of words borrowed from Sanskrit, the oldest surviving member of the IndoEuropean family. Therefore, most of the terms Sri Ramana used to describe the practical means by which we can attain Self-Knowledge are either Tamil words or words of Sanskrit origin that are commonly used in Tamil spiritual literature.

The words he thus used in Tamil have been translated in English by a variety of different words, some of which convey the import & spirit of his original words more clearly & accurately than others.  Perhaps 2 of the clearest & most simple terms used in English to convey the Sense of the words that he used in Tamil to describe the practical means to attain Self-Knowledge are “Self-Attention” & “Self-Abidance”.

The term “Self-Attention” denotes the Knowing aspect of the practice, while the term “Self-Abidance” denotes its Existence aspect.  Since our Real Self, which is Non-Dual Self-Consciousness, knows itself not by an act of Knowing but merely by Existence itself, the state of knowing our Real Self is just the state of Existence our Real Self.  Thus attending to our SelfConsciousness & abiding as our SelfConsciousness are one & the same thing.

All the other words that Sri Ramana used to describe the practice are intended to be clues that help to clarify what this state of “Self-Attention” or “Self-Abidance” really is. A few of the terms which he used to describe the practice of “Self-Attention” or “Self-Abidance” are in fact terms already used in some of the classical texts of advaita vēdānta.  However, though such texts have used some of the same terms that Sri Ramana used to express the practice, they have seldom explained the true import of those terms in a clear & unambiguous manner.  Thus, even after thoroughly studying the classical literature of advaita vēdānta, many people are left with only a vague understanding of what they can do to attain Self-Knowledge.  As a result, many mis-conceptions about the practice of advaita vēdānta arose, & some of these misconceptions have been prevalent among students & scholars of advaita vēdānta since time immemorial.

One of the terms that occurs in the classical literature of advaita vēdānta & that Sri Ramana frequently used to denote the practice of Self-Attention is vicāra (which is commonly transcribed as vichara, since the “c” in vicāra represents the same sound as “ch” in chutney), but the significance of this term was not clearly understood by most of the traditional scholars of advaita vēdānta.

According to the Sanskrit-English dictionary of MonierWilliams, the term vicāra has various meanings, including “pondering, deliberation, consideration, reflection, examination, investigation”, & it is in these senses that this same word is used in Tamil, as is clear from the

Tamil Lexicon, which defines it both as “deliberation” or “consideration”, & as “unbiased examination with a view to arriving at the Truth” or “investigation”.  Therefore the term ātma-vicāra, which Sri Ramana frequently used to describe the practice by which we can attain Self-Knowledge, means “Self-Investigation” or “Self-Examination”, & denotes the practice of examining, inspecting or scrutinizing our fundamental & essential Consciousness “I exist” with a keen & concentrated power of attention.

Though the term ātma-vicāra can best be translated in English as “SelfInvestigation”, “Self-Examination”, “Self-Inspection”, “Self-Scrutiny”, “Self-Contemplation”, or simply “Self-Attention”, in most English translations of Sri Ramana”s teachings it has been translated as “Self-Inquiry”.  This choice of the English word “Inquiry” to translate vicāra has had unfortunate consequences, because it has created an impression in the Minds of some people that ātma-vicāra, or the vicāra “Who Am  I ?” as Sri Ramana often called it, is merely a process of questioning or asking our self “Who am I ?”

This is clearly a misinterpretation, because in Sanskrit the word vicāra means “Inquiry” in the Sense of “Investigation” rather than in the sense of “questioning”.  When Sri Ramana spoke of the vicāra “Who am I ?” he did not intend it to imply that we can attain the Non-Dual experience of true Self-Knowledge simply by asking our self the question “Who am I ?”  The vicāra “Who am I ?”  is an investigation, examination or scrutiny of our fundamental Consciousness “I exist”, because only by keenly scrutinizing or inspecting our Consciousness “I” can we discover who we really are what this Consciousness “I” actually is.

The above themes & 2500 pages more are freely available as perused or downloaded PDF’s, the sole occupants of a Public Microsoft Skydrive “Public Folder” accessible through  www.jpstiga.com 

short-cut: http://sdrv.ms/YPOgkX or http://tinyurl.com/nnyyr58  link directly to free E-book PDF files

www.jpstiga.com/

http://jstiga.wixsite.com/nonduality/

Different blogs (but with graphics) are available on:

http://www.blogger.com     as  “Being-as-Consciousness, Non-Duality – new & final version” with link:

http://Being-as-Consciousness.blogspot.com/

There is no Creation, no Destruction, no Bondage, no longing to be freed from Bondage, no striving for Liberation, nor anyone who has attained Liberation. Know that this to be Ultimate Truth.

  the “no creation” school of Gaudapada, Shankara, Ramana, Nome  Ajata Vada

 for very succinct summary of the teaching & practice, see:  www.ajatavada.com/